The Starting Six: On the Remarkable Glory Days of Iowa Girls Basketball

May 8, 2014 | 2 books mentioned 24 7 min read
Connie Yori, Ankeny's prolific scorer, putting up a short-range jumper.
Connie Yori, Ankeny’s prolific scorer, putting up a short-range jumper.

This past March I was sitting on a stool at my local sports bar, waiting for a sandwich and daydreaming about the local team and my son’s alma mater, the Wisconsin Badgers, playing their way into the NCAA finals. (It’s amazing how much loyalty writing four years of tuition bills can instill.) I wasn’t paying much attention to the women’s basketball game on the screen until I noticed the Nebraska coach. I looked closer, and sure enough, I realized I knew the woman in the business suit, standing on the sidelines, directing the Cornhuskers. Actually, I didn’t really know Connie Yori. But I remembered her well.

In 1981, I’d watched her throw down 49 points in the Iowa state tournament quarter-finals against Charles City, on the way to leading her Ankeny team into their second consecutive state tournament finals. Girls basketball back then was huge in Iowa. The girls state tournament routinely outsold the boys basketball tournament and the top players were legitimate state celebrities. Like Indiana back in Hoosiers (the movie) days, there was only one big tournament — none of this modern division stuff.

Connie Yori was the best girls basketball player I’d ever seen live. Five-ten, with an honest-to-god, NBA-style jump shot. She seemed to get along famously with her teammates and middle-aged coach, although at the end of practice she’d regularly ask him the same question.

“How about letting us play some five-on-five?”

He never, to my experience, relented. Because in Iowa, the game that the state was wild about was six-on-six. It was illegal for players to cross the center line. Not like “over-and-back.” Ever. Three girls played all-time defense, three played offense. Dribble three times, and it was a travel. Hold the ball for more than three seconds, turnover. They’d been playing these rules since the ’40s, and it created a major uproar when they finally switched to standard rules in 1994.

I’d started following the Ankeny girls team in the fall of 1980, introducing myself to the coach, getting permission to visit the occasional practice and scrimmage. I took a lot of pictures.

That summer, I’d called the editor of The Iowan magazine, proposing a feature story giving an inside look into this sporting phenomenon by doing a “season on the brink” — following a girls basketball team from first practice to last game.

“Okay,” the editor said, unenthusiastically. “Just don’t spend too much time on it.”

I knew what he meant. I was writing regularly for The Iowan and I knew to expect the normal payment, in the low three figures. An extra hundred if I provided the photos, which I certainly planned on doing. I wasn’t discouraged. For me, it would be an adventure, and surely a stepping stone to my dream job on the staff of Sports Illustrated.

I began looking for the right team, one within reach of my home base in Ames, Iowa, where the large city high school had no tradition of girls basketball. Girls basketball in Iowa had been the province of small-town Iowa, all the way back to its earliest days, when the basket was a peach basket and, on the rare occasion when a player managed to throw the lop-sided ball inside, a broomstick was required to knock it free.

Growing up in Iowa, even in Dubuque, where the only girls high school sports were tennis and golf, girls basketball was part of the culture. Each spring the TV broadcasts from the capacity crowds at the state’s largest arena in Des Moines took over one of the three stations our antenna received, and it was largely from these games that I learned the names of small town Iowa: Grundy Center, Montezuma, What Cheer.

I can’t recall a single boys high school player from my childhood outside my hometown, but remember watching in awe as Denise Long of Union-Whitten knocked down 111 points against Daws in the 1968 state tournament. The Des Moines Register, a paper that everyone in state seemed to get, joined in the fun when she was later drafted in the 13th round in 1969 by the NBA’s San Francisco Warriors in a publicity stunt. Women’s college basketball wasn’t even in the picture and wouldn’t be for another decade.

The starting Ankeny Iowa six, 1981.
The starting Ankeny Iowa six, 1981.

After considering Story City, to the north of Ames, I decided on Ankeny, a city of 15,000 south of Ames, north of Des Moines. The first time I introduced myself to coach Dick Rasmussen, he seemed a bit leery of the idea of a young reporter following his team all year, but as we chatted he came around.

“You ought to see them play softball,” he said. It was only years later than I checked the record book. The basketball girls all played on his softball team as well, winning the previous three state championships.

I had stumbled onto an unusually talented group of athletic girls, under the direction of one of Iowa’s legendary coaches. He would later say that Connie Yori, the star of that 1981 team, was the best basketball player he’d ever coached. I would be surprised if she wasn’t.

It was a bit odd, at first, watching the three-on-three girls format, especially the somewhat awkward exchanges over the center line from the defensive team to the offensive one. The two dribble rule also made the game pass-centric, if somewhat stuttering. When a team made a basket, a referee hustled the ball to mid-court to a waiting colleague where it was snapped to the offensive player stationed inside the center circle. The result was a fast-paced game, with the number of offensive possessions close to double typical in standard rules and some prodigious offensive statistics. The six-on-six rules were wildly popular in Iowa and Oklahoma. For most of the rest of the country, organized interscholastic girls basketball just didn’t exist and wouldn’t take hold until Title IX’s impact in the mid-’70s, which in 1981 was still just beginning to reshape girls and women’s sports.

The history of six-on-six rules is a bit obscure. It’s hard, with basketball such a huge business these days, to imagine the days when it a casual gymnasium PE activity with a wide variety of fluid rules, like the odd game of capture the flag or kickball. At one time, the court was divided into three areas — one for offense, one for defense, and a center area where two players did a jump ball after every score. That form of basketball was not destined for prime time. Whatever the exact details, it’s clear that the intent of six-on-six was to limit full-court running, which was felt to be too taxing for members of the fairer sex. In fact, this same sentiment was behind the demise of girls basketball in larger Iowa cities, where the belief that sports would damage young women gathered more support than in the smaller farming communities, where it was probably pretty self-evident that hard work was not the cause of widespread female health problems.

coverIn her history of Iowa girls basketball, From Six-on-Six to Full Court Press (Iowa State University Press, 1993), Janice Beran cites anti-basketball advocates stating that competitive basketball fostered “aggressive…unladylike” characteristics. They apparently found plentiful medical experts who believed athletics affected menstrual cycles and the capacity to have children. She quotes a Scientific America article from 1926 which stated, “It may be a good thing that women are not as interested in athletics for feminine muscular development interferes with motherhood.”

But despite its dodgy conceptual roots, I grew to enjoy the frequent passing, the ability of a single player to dominate the offensive game, the frustration of teams trying to double-team Yori, only to have her slip passes to her teammates, one of whom would go on to be a Division 1 collegiate basketball guard for Drake. You might say it was the original triangle offense. Yori, unlike the stars of just a decade earlier, had the opportunity for athletic scholarships and inter-collegiate play. She ended up in Omaha, at Creighton, where she became a mainstay among the top scorers in collegiate basketball.

The girls state high school tournament regularly filled the largest auditorium in Iowa, Veterans Memorial in Des Moines. On the floor, the three offensive players wait at half-court for a rebound or a scored goal.
The girls state high school tournament regularly filled the largest auditorium in Iowa, Veterans Memorial in Des Moines. On the floor, the three offensive players wait at half-court for a rebound or a scored goal.

The 1981 team dominated the regular season and played into the state finals for the second year in a row. The Iowan got me a press pass and it was my first, and only, visit to the tournament. The scene at Veteran’s Auditorium for the state tournament was, pardon the cliché, electric. The place was sold out and raucous. The boys from these small schools seemed to be unabashed fans, the younger kids, face painted in school colors, gave it a carnival atmosphere. I remember chatting with a young Congressman courtside, Chuck Grassley, who was wearing a shiny suit with a wide tie displaying a gigantic knot. He seemed to be having a grand time, meeting and greeting folks in preparation for the launch of his 30-plus-year career in the U.S. Senate.

Sports Illustrated was covering the event and had installed flashes in the rafters of the gym, so that its photographers could get perfectly lit photos of the action. I pushed my black and white film setting and shot with a blurry, wide-open aperture, sitting on the floor courtside with all the pro shooters with larger, faster lenses. It was a close contest, with Ankeny losing the game on a final-second basket by Norwalk, reversing the two-point win over Norwalk Ankeny had scored in the finals the previous year. I still have a roll of film shot from the basketball floor after the buzzer, where I, only somewhat shamefully, roamed, capturing the hugs and tears.

Four years later, the tournament was broken into two divisions as larger schools joined the Title IX sports revolution. The larger schools played five-on-five, while the smaller schools continued with the old format. These two styles co-existed uncomfortably until 1993, when Atlantic beat Montezuma. The following year, the tournament was split into four divisions, based on enrollment, and they all played by standard modern rules.

As for my career as a sports writer, I did, that winter, cover a professional tennis tournament in Chicago for World Tennis Magazine. I watched the Chicago press corps grumble about the free sandwiches they were fighting for, two old rivals, who seemed like grandpas to me, almost coming to blows. They asked the players ridiculous questions in the press conference, including one reporter wondering if John McEnroe feared being shot by a fan. Another reporter went on a tirade because the tournament changed the order of an evening’s program, after he’d gone to press, turning him “into a liar.”

That was end of my short, happy life as a sports reporter, and close to the end of my days in Iowa. I never covered another basketball event as a writer, and soon moved away, never to return. That’s made my season on the brink all the more memorable and special. When I think fondly of my home state, in my mind, the three girls on the offensive team are still out there on the hardwood, in their black kneepads, waiting at center court for a defensive rebound and a chance to move the ball, two steps at a time, towards the goal.

is a writer based in Madison, Wisconsin. His journalism has been appearing in Belt Magazine, with his series on the Foxconn development in Wisconsin receiving a Best of 2017 recognition from Longreads.


  1. Thanks for this article, Lawrence. If you haven’t seen it, in 2004 University of Nebraska Press published a history of the 6 player girls’ game in Iowa called ¨The Only Dance in Iowa by Max McElwain.

  2. Thank you for this fine article that well represents my sentiments of playing six-on-six “girl’s basketball” in the 60’s. It was a fun, fast game, and we even wore skirts!

  3. I coached both 6 on 6 and 5 on 5 during my days of coaching in Iowa. I still prefer the 6 on 6 version. Both Denise Long and Connie Yori were on teams I coached against. In addition to basketball Connie Yori was an all state softball player and in the summer after her senior year while playing in the softball state tournament. When she knew she would be playing 5 on 5 basketball in college she dribbled a basketball around the dorms and on the sidewalks all week during the softball state tournament when she was not on the field.

  4. College basketball for women was alive in 1968. The Wayland Baptist Queens were a fabulous team to watch. In the fall of 1969 I went to John F. Kennedy College in Wahoo, NE. This team would go to China in 1973 to play basketball against the Chinese National Team. The star of that team was a gal I knew from my own conference and a perennial powerhouse, Mediapolis. Barb Wischmeier is a Hall of Fame member. Another Hall of Famer is my friend, Debbie Merritt, from Gutherie Center, Iowa. Amazing time to have went to high school in small town Iowa. Thanks for the article and Happy New Year.

  5. Great article and I remember playing six. My roommate Joyce worked for the Iowa girls athletic union and still does. Lots of fun at vets auditorium.

  6. Loved the game, daughter loved the game and my mother was a
    Jumping center. Thanks so much for the article.
    Game was so much fun and then they had to change to a boys game and change to classes, to bad, but I’m old and think some changes are not always better.

  7. Thanks for sharing. I also grew up in Iowa playing 6 v 6 and went on to play college basketball. What an amazing memory and am happy to be one of the few who personally experienced such a cool part of history. Thanks for sharing this article.

  8. Thanks so much for the article. So many wonderful memories. I played 6 on 6 in the late 50″s, so much fun and was disappointed to see it change. Always looked forward to the state tournaments, even if our team didn’t make it there, we still went and had a ball. And, yes, our suits were skirts for the home games. I do wonder what the girls now would think about it?

  9. Good article. My 2 sisters and I played 6 on 6 at Gladbrook, mother was jump center.You failed to mention that Gladbrook won the big trophy for 2 years in a row during the 50s.

  10. I enjoyed this article and wanted to add a tidbit. I grew up in one of Iowa’s small towns, Kamrar. This very small town still proudly displays a large picture of the girls’ 6-on-6 national championship team from the 1940s. Yes, I did say national championship; if I recall correctly, Kamrar beat a team from Texas to claim the title.

  11. Great article. I played for Coach Rasmussen in softball (1980 was last year of basketball due to knee problems) and played behind Connie Yori at shortstop — yep — didn’t get to start until she graduated ;-). I was at both state finals against Norwalk — from the heights to the depths!! Only one problem…….the knee pads were maroon, not black.

  12. Great article! I was a few years younger than Connie, but attended Ankeny High School. I have seen where Connie’s accomplishments in both basketball and softball err mentioned, but I also wanted to point out that Connie set the state record in the softball throw in track. I believe she also was a long jumper and ran on a relay team… As did several other of the girls on the “dream team.” Karlin Hayes, Cheryl Feldman, Cherie Andersen, Julie Trainum, Jacque Meyer, Debbie Schneider…. many others. Connie’s sisters Karen and Mary were also incredible athletes. But even more importantly was her educational accomplishments… she graduated close to the top of her class. Connie is an incredible person with a great smile and funny sense of humor. Iowa will never see another like her.

  13. Great article…great memories! I graduated from Ankeny High in 1979 and went to many girls basketball games…including the state tourneys. I saw all the Yori girls play both basketball and softball. I loved the six player action!! So much excitement in the game!!! You just can’t imagine it unless you’ve seen it.

  14. I know the version of this game was well-loved. In 1979, my family moved to IA from IL. I had pre-teen dreams of playing basketball like an older brother. When I saw this version of the game, I knew my future would not include basketball. I found it demeaning that the game was watered-down. I wanted to have a fast break or go “coast-to-coast” for a game-winning layup. Many of my classmates loved this version, but I could never get over the fact that my older brothers could play basketball while I was too “delicate” to bounce the ball more than twice, or cross half-court.

  15. This was a good article which brought back some good memories. I played for Southeast Polk and had one of the best coaches ever Ray Svenson. In 1987 we played for the championship game against Ventura and Lyn Lorensen. I did go on to play college basketball for the university of Arizona. I am fortunate to say I am part of 6 on 6 basketball and all the incredible history it has.

  16. Thank you for the wonderful article! My Town Pictures has just begun holding auditions for their film New Providence…
    NEW PROVIDENCE – A cynical reporter from a Sports Illustrated-type magazine in NY is assigned to cover the final 6-on-6 girls basketball game in Iowa. Bored to tears at the thought and cynical about the game’s importance, the reporter becomes enmeshed with the small town, a mystery about a legendary player who no one has seen since she last played the game, and a young woman who could become the love of his life…if he can just open his eyes and heart to where he is. A romantic comedy/drama based on some true stories about the unique 6-on-6 girls basketball fervor in Iowa, which ended in 1994 and is still considered an example of the purity of the game and how it brings communities together.
    *For updates on this project please “Like” the New Providence Facebook page:

  17. My 4 sisters and I played in Manilla in the 70s. Best experience anyone could go through! Great article.

  18. As a kid, I remember watching the girls’ basketball tourney, and couldn’t tell the winners from the losers with all the crying going on. I learned to like the six on six game in high school at Ames High, which despite what the author states, had a strong girls’ basketball program. The Ames girls made it to state in 1978 and 1979. In fact, Ames High beat the Ankeny girls in 1979 during the Regional finals, denying the defending state champs the opportunity to return to the state tourney.

    When my sister was a high school freshman in 1984, AHS made the switch to five on five for girls basketball. As much as I liked the old format, I was glad to see my sister be able to play basketball, not girls basketball. It might not have been as high scoring but five on five bball was more exciting and more athletic. Still it’s nice to reminisce about six on six ball

  19. 6 on 6 was such better basketball to watch. Even college girls 5 on 5 is just too slow. The low scoring games are such a bore.

  20. Those were some of the best days of my life. I remember the Rostermundt girls from Manilla, Meg Hennesey, Barb Wishmeier, Denise Long, Sherry Myers Wagner who still holds the most consecutive free throw record in Iowa from 6 on 6. And Connie Yori – she’s an incredible winning girls coach these past few years as well! Late 60’s, early 70’s, such fun times in girls basketball.

  21. So enjoyed your article. Know there were many stars in the era. You must have kniw about Andrew Iowas’s standout guard. Don’t remember her first name but believe her last name was Sommers. Outstanding talent. You hardly noted that one of her arms was missing just below the elbow from a farm accident (I believe). She inspired me to play. Touched so may lives. We were a neighboring town. We would journey to Des Moines to cheer the Andrew Hawks when I was a kid!!

  22. Anne Logemann–i played 6-6 in Waukon. Graduated in 1978.
    Bob sampson was our coach.
    Before he came to Waukon he coached in Andrew. The two girls you are thinking about are Kim peters… She was an outstanding guard. And Angie Sommers was the forward… She too was outstanding.

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