We Need to Talk About the Canon: Demographics in ‘The Norton Anthology’

April 29, 2019 | 1 book mentioned 6 3 min read

In the last 20 years or so, the discussion of diversity in the American literary canon has exploded, garnering space in mainstream media outlets. A wide array of magazines, journals, and websites have tackled the issue. A 2013 New Yorker article titled “Canon Fodder: Denouncing the Classics” details the prickly and vague assumptions with which experts attempt to define canonical works. Other articles aim to deconstruct or expound upon the problem, often with similarly severe titles: “What is Literature?: In Defense of the Canon” (Harper’s, 2014); “The Literary Canon Is Still One Big Sausage Fest” (Jezebel, 2012); “Reconstructing the Canon” (Harvard Political Review, 2018), “The Canon Is Sexist, Racist, Colonialist, and Totally Gross. Yes, You Have to Read It Anyway” (Slate, 2018).

The majority of literary Americans—readers, writers, editors, publishers, professors, reviewers, and so on—are now all too aware of the serious problems surrounding literary inclusivity and representation. As a result, recent years have seen an uptick the publication and recognition of writers of more diverse backgrounds. This positive gain is due, in part, to an expanding network of organizations that support diversification, including VIDA, Lambda Literary, Cave Canem, Kundiman, and others.

But as yet, there has been very little hard data from which to discuss the extent of mis- or underrepresentation. Understandably so: such an undertaking would require a massive investment of time and resources. One manageable place to start, though, is to examine the textbook anthologies we offer American students. Indeed, these anthologies are often meant as snapshots of the canon, given to high-schoolers and undergraduates in literature survey courses nationwide. The most well-known of these is probably The Norton Anthology of American Literature.

The Norton Anthology has been a fixture in American classrooms since its introduction in 1979. This series is curated by a rotating assembly of editors, with new editions published every four to six years. W. W. Norton guards their sales figures and course adoption statistics closely, but, as of 2016, they claimed that roughly 12 million students have used The Norton Anthology of American Literature during its lifetime. It’s unclear if this figure includes resales of used books at college bookstores or reused editions in high school classrooms. Even so, this means about 4 million students per decade have used the anthology (or about 400,000 a year), on average.

This anthology series has had a foundational impact on defining what many readers and scholars would identify as an “American canon.” It follows that a demographic analysis of these books would—at the very least—yield a starting point for a more quantitative, statistical analysis of representation in the The Norton Anthology and the canon. And, like a selfie, this picture is not only a reflection of ourselves and our literary output, but a memento of who we are at this particular moment in time.

I conducted this study not for any prescriptive means, nor as any sort of definitive yardstick on the condition of American letters. At most, the findings listed here may be viewed as a measure of currently accepted levels of representation in anthologies. The central impetus for this examination was simply to contribute a data set that offers a snapshot of one version of the American canon (the version most familiar to students and teachers of literature in American high school and university classrooms).

This snapshot concentrates on the 194 writers in three books of The Norton Anthology of American Literature, Ninth Edition, volumes C, D, and E (“1865 to the Present”), published in 2017. This study excludes volumes A and B (“Beginnings to 1865”). The selection of writings included in these first volumes is limited due to the oppression and erasure enacted upon minorities in antebellum America. These early books consist mainly of unattributed oral literatures, religious tracts, letters, and memoir-narratives. Simply stated, a demographic analysis of the first two books of The Norton Anthology would be largely moot; they define the underrepresentation the study seeks to explore in the anthology’s later volumes.

A final note before presenting the data: There’s a saddening byproduct to spending a significant amount of time coding and simplifying each writer down to his or her demographic information. Writers are notoriously complex people, and they frequently make very concerted efforts to subvert easy categorization. At a certain point, I began to feel as though I was doing an injustice and, indeed, a violence to the legacy of many writers. Demographic data flattens and dehumanizes its subjects in a very uncomfortable way, and I apologize to all writers and readers for reducing people who, by their very nature, are irreducible. This study was undertaken in good faith and under the auspices of exploration and learning. I welcome disagreement, discourse, and correction, particularly from experts on demographic studies and on the identities of writers contained in The Norton Anthology.

What follows are data visualizations of information compiled from biographical and critical research. The data gets much more complex and difficult to parse at its deeper, more intersectional levels, though I plan to continue with and add to this work (and welcome others to do the same). I hope these summaries provide a starting point to further statistical analyses of representation in American literature and that this information is helpful to anyone interested in our current and future trajectory toward literary diversity.

Norton provides a full table of contents of these editions online, available for perusal here.

is a poet, essayist, and critic. He works on the editorial boards of Cimarron Review and Nimrod International, and his debut poetry collection, Why I Didn’t Go to Your Funeral, is forthcoming in May 2019.


  1. Who cares about canons. Normies and the middle class, apparently. Like this website. And apparently just me. And I don’t even come here except once every year when I’m bored. In try to inject relevancy and actual thought, some juice, some life. But to no avail. How is this website even still in existence???

    Also, female dramatists have only really been producing for like forty or fifty years, and nobody wants to spend that much time on the fucking Baby Boomers. I know that I don’t. Think outside your box.

  2. Fucking Baby Boomers, *Unite*! :-)

    Great presentation of the data, and might I suggest a useful follow-on: these same attributes presented on a timeline—i.e, what has the evolution been over time? Are we getting better, or swimming in an infinity pool?

    (Uh-oh! That was a “normie / middle class” slip, wasn’t it! :-)

  3. Ok, I’ll bite. The Baby Boomers got everything they had from their parents, including all of their ideas. They left their kids nothing. But in return for that, we don’t respect them. To the degree that the canon is unbalanced, its just historical happenstance that white males occupy large swaths of it. To the degree that women aren’t included in the canon before the 1960s, those are just the breaks (and that’s completely incorrect anyway, there are plenty of great women writers in the canon, just not as many as there are men). If I want to spend a semester reading about self-centered Baby Boomers getting naked on the streets of New York so that they could deal with their generation gap and love themselves more perfectly, I’ll take a class on the art history of SoHo. But if I want to learn how literature got to where it is today I want an honest look at the works that moved Western Culture. And if I’m PAYING A BABY BOOMER for the class, I sure as hell want satisfaction.

  4. Canon? What Canon? I browse the aisles of my local independent book store. I think I have enough smarts to make my own canon.

  5. Further, my Canon includes Mantel, both Penelopes, Shena Mackay, Binnie Kirshenbaum, Philip Hensher, Pat Barker, Zadie Smith, Danzy Senza, Katie Kitamura, Rupert Thomson, William Boyd. So you see, it is personal. No one need dictate what you should read. No one should denigrate what another reads. It is so very simple and needs no acid tone as given by the guy who actually has the balls to not only call himself the “devil”, but to assert that he is the only reader of The Millions.

  6. What is illustrated here as the ‘canon’ has a huge impact on American students. The fact is that these canonical authors are what is being taught as the most important voices in literature today to high school and college students. You can all pretend that its antiquated mumbo jumbo but it sets the baseline that many people never push past. As a high school English teacher, we believe our mandate (among others) is to teach cultural literacy and give them a baseline of the classics with the idea that they can then push past them and discover a whole world of literature out there in the Wild West of college. So when we tell them that the majority of authors are dead, white males, we perpetuate that hegemony.

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