Beyoncé’s ‘Lemonade’ Gets the Book Treatment


A New Orleans police cruiser sinks beneath rising floodwater. A bouncy and ratchet-grooved R&B beat pummels like the noonday sun of Louisiana. And, looking resplendent in a striped red dress, Beyoncé reclines atop the squad car chanting, “I slay, I slay.” This unforgettable scene closes out the music video for “Formation,” the final track on the singer’s 2016 visual album Lemonade.

The choreographed riot also sets an opulent stage for a new, hard-to-classify work of music writing by Omise’eke Tinsley. In Beyoncé in Formation: Remixing Black Feminism, Tinsley charts how the luscious veneer of Lemonade conceals a subversive, empowering, and downright badass disruption of the cultural narratives that give shape to blackness, femininity, motherhood, southernness, and sexuality in America. Tinsley regards Beyoncé as a potential healing voice for many queer, femme, and trans* folk, who are often not given the space to speak their own stories. Part scholarly treatise and part family history, part lavish scrapbook and part justice-oriented advocacy—you’ve never read a book quite like this.

For this interview with The Millions, Tinsley talked about writing like a remixer, the startling wisdom found in autobiographies of famous female country singers, and Beyoncé stepping into the role of a paradigm-slaying hero.

The Millions: Your book is called Beyoncé in Formation: Remixing Black Feminism. How is your book a remix and why did you choose that form?

Omise’eke Tinsley: As I set out to write this book, one of my questions was, “How am I going to write about Beyoncé?” She has a lot of music. There is a lot that people have said about her. Initially, my editor imagined that I would tell a story that began with the first solo album and continued through Lemonade, or went track-by-track on Lemonade. But I didn’t feel like that would be a book I was particularly suited to write. Instead of writing a book the way that I was taught to write in graduate school, I wanted to have the form come from my subject matter as a matter of respect.

I tried in each chapter to bring in different elements—maybe a little bit of history, other current events—and to mix all of those together in the way that I would make a mixtape. My idea was to write the book like a song, given that I have no actual songwriting expertise, but to make a book-type song. Scholars like Angela Davis have talked about how black women’s songs have been a space in which we’ve told our stories, told what it means to be a black woman, and told how we imagine getting free. That has been a space that has been more accessible to black women, historically, than the academy ever has been. I was writing Beyoncé in Formation in the tradition of black feminism that’s always remixing the feminist texts that have come before.

TM: The Lemonade visual album is something of a mixtape too. It has traditional music video spots, voiceovers of poems by Warsan Shire, and home video footage from Beyoncé and Jay-Z. What do you think the big-picture project of Lemonade is and how the remix format fits into it?

OT: Like every other Beyoncé fan, I love the self-titled album. It came out around the time when Beyoncé stood up at the Video Music Awards in front of a brightly-lit sign, declared herself a feminist, and broke the Internet in a way that it desperately needed to be broken. However, one thing that was nagging at me in Beyoncé is that it’s so cosmopolitan. Parts of the self-titled visual album are shot in Brazil, parts of it are shot on the European continent. That’s great and that’s cute—it’s nice to be in chateaus. But it seemed to me that some of the specificity of Beyoncé as a black woman from the U.S. South was being washed out as part of her message of feminism.

When Lemonade dropped, it immediately had a special place in my heart. It imagines the U.S. South peopled almost entirely by black women. It’s a U.S. South in which the past, present, and future weave in and out of each other, in which black women both have a past that’s powerful and have a future that’s possible. Traditionally, it’s a site that people imagine as a space of impossibility and backwardness and disempowerment. For me, as someone living in Texas at that moment, to imagine the U.S. South as a space of possibility, as a space of historic strength, and as a space of possibility for the future was really important.

Thinking about black women’s creativity, our history, different cultural artifacts—how all of these can be in conversation to imagine a world in which black women simply get to be free is, to me, the premise of Lemonade. It’s imagining black women’s freedom and part of that freedom is not being beholden to anything.

TM: In the context of Lemonade, I’ve been thinking about how pop music has a trickster quality. There are bland, universal aspects but also a wink and a nod. There are also incredibly personal and autobiographical components in the language and the gestures of pop music. How do you think Beyoncé has incorporated autobiography in her music, and what changed for Lemonade?

OT: I don’t think Lemonade is the story of Beyoncé’s marriage. When it came out, there was a reaction like, “Oh my God, Beyoncé finally told us about her marriage. She finally laid herself bare and made herself vulnerable.” There was all this speculation: “Are they getting a divorce?”—and this and that and the other. I’ve had some people say to me, “I feel like Lemonade was about the black woman’s universal experience of being cheated on.” I did not get that at all. I’m not saying that’s not a valid reaction, but I think Beyoncé uses autobiographical elements to tell a story that’s about more than her individual story. If it was just her story, she wouldn’t need to create a world that’s populated by black women and a community that is there to witness her pain and her healing. She’s telling this story about healing in a marriage, but to me it’s about the bigger question, “What does a black woman need to heal?”

One thing about being a creative black woman or woman of color is the assumption always that we’re writing autobiography. I once taught Breath, Eyes, Memory by Edwidge Danticat and a student of mine asked in class, “Is it safe to assume, because the author is fairly young, that this must be autobiography because she wouldn’t have anything else to write about?” And my answer was, “No! Of course not!” Black women have more to tell than just the story of our own lives. I think we all wish we were Beyoncé’s girlfriends and she would tell us about her marriage, but she’s not. She’s making a work of art, and she’s selling a product. That product is not access to Beyoncé’s home life. All artists use elements of the autobiographical to tell a story that’s larger than the story of their lives.

There are so many moments in Lemonade where that becomes abundantly clear. One of the moments is in “Hold Up” when she emerges on the courthouse steps dressed like Oshun, the Yoruba goddess of fresh water, beauty, and femininity. She’s putting her story in an African diaspora context. In the next song on the visual album, “Don’t Hurt Yourself,” she samples Malcolm X: “The most disrespected woman in America is the black woman.” At that moment, the film stops to make clear that if you think this is just about one black woman, you’re missing the point. The point is about how black women are disrespected in every aspect of our lives. Not just our marriages, not just our personal lives, not just by a man but by The Man. The point is also how we’re continually looking for the love, respect, and tenderness that we want and have a hard time accessing. I both applaud Beyoncé using autobiographical elements—the home videos and some stories from her past, whether real or fictional—to give us this idea that black women’s personal stories are worth telling. But she also takes that and builds on it, bringing in the work of other black women artists like Warsan Shire and Julie Dash, and thinks about the larger picture of how black women create beauty out of whatever it is we have available in our lives, how we take lemons and turn them into lemonade.

TM: Your book is like no other book that I’ve ever come across. I had to stretch to come up with a comparison, but the one that finally clicked for me was Joanna Demers’s Drone and Apocalypse. It’s about drone music; very different from Beyoncé, of course. The connection for me was that Demers answered another scholar’s call to write about her chosen genre in a new way that was more appropriate to its themes, aesthetics, and conventions. It took the form of a catalog for an art exhibit from the future, which makes a certain sort of sense when you read it. It seems to me that the remixed form of your book is shaped not only by the form of Lemonade, but also by the scholarly writing of Sydney Fonteyn Lewis and Juana Rodriguez, whom you call out in the introduction. Would you agree with that? And how would you say that Beyoncé in Formation responds to their work?

OT: I think my work has a similar spirit to those two, but is fairly different in some ways. Juana’s book Sexual Futures, Queer Gestures, and Other Latina Longings, which I love and adore, is scholarly in a different way than mine is. It’s playful and it’s attentive to pleasure. I also have that same opening to playfulness and pleasure, but in a different way. I think of my work in line with Juana’s partly because we both write specifically as femmes.

Lewis’s project was to look at a text, at popular culture, at people like Donna Summer, at black feminist novelists, and look for femme representation where we can’t find them. When I was a graduate student, I was struck that there was a dearth of people theorizing what it means to be a queer femme. Here we are, 20 years later almost, and it’s still the same thing. Why is it that femmes of color don’t feel like it’s important to write our gender into our queer texts?

The two words that I wanted in the title of my book were “black” and “femme”— I won one battle and I lost the other. The publisher’s thought was that “femme” is too narrow, people aren’t going to know what it is. (Which is why I wanted it in the title!) I wanted to think about how femme-ness and black queer femme-ninity was in conversation with other black feminist representations. I was inspired by people who had come before me, but also hoping to hold space for the next generation of scholars to think about queer gender more expansively, particularly about femme-ninity.

TM: I’m really interested in that idea of holding space. You examine some of the femme and queer undertones and overtones of Lemonade, and readers never know what’s coming on the next page—from #blacktranslivesmatter activism to ratchet feminism to New Orleans bounce music. But by the end of the book, you pull back some of your autobiographical tendencies and put forward the voices of black trans* men and women. I was wondering if you could talk about “writing in” other voices, in terms of insertion into the text, and “writing in” other voices, in terms of imitation. How did you strike the right balance?

TO: I didn’t feel like, in a chapter about black trans* femme-ninity, my stories…they’re just not the stories that need to be told. I look forward to other trans* women of color in particular talking about their own relationship to Beyoncé and to popular culture. It’s important that Beyoncé is powerful to black trans* femmes—and it’s important to me that they tell that story and that I don’t. As I say in the book, I am disappointed that Big Freedia doesn’t show up in the “Formation” video. I’m disappointed that she doesn’t show up in Drake’s video as well. I hope that the inclusion of somebody like Big Freedia on these tracks can be a starting point for more representation of the diversity in which black femme-ninity robes itself. For example, black trans femme-ninity doesn’t all have to look like Janet Mock. (But it’s great if it does!) Black femme-ninity doesn’t have be assigned female at birth. It doesn’t have to be legible in the way we expect femme-ninity to be. I think there are going to be other texts coming out in which black trans* women get to be the autobiographical voice.

TM: You write about your new collection of autobiographies written by female country singers and mention that you “learned a lot about the ideal country mother” from them. Of course, Beyoncé is an idealized country mother in some ways. What did you learn by accumulating that small library? What are some things those books have you thinking about as a Texas-based mother yourself?

OT: I can’t say that I knew anything about country music growing up in Northern California. It was just not a part of my world. When I came to Texas, a lot of my black students from Houston had a connection to country music. It’s something that they heard in their houses. When Beyoncé had the nod to country music in Lemonade, that made sense to me.

My father’s mother, who died a few years before I was born, was born in Louisiana. I’ve always been really curious about her. My father has a hard time talking about her because for him she is the ideal country mother. She sacrificed everything for her six kids. My questions to him were, “What did she like? What did she enjoy?” She liked country music. She was a big Hank Williams fan. As a way of learning about my grandmother, it had been in the back of my mind to learn more about country music.

I got really interested in Loretta Lynn, and I read everything she’s ever written. Dolly Parton, some of these other women—I vaguely remember them from growing up, but I didn’t realize the way they were pushing back and challenging the ideals of country motherhood, which are that your family should be your life, if your man cheats you take him back, you put your faith in God, you don’t work outside the home except maybe once in a while to feed your family. These are the kinds of stories that I heard about my grandmother from my father. Some of my reading of these autobiographies, including Tammy Wynette’s Stand by Your Man, was to try and hear from these women about what the rewards and the challenges of being expected to live for your family are. What happens when you refuse to? Or you can’t? And what do you get out of it? What do you lose?

The strength and the complexity of their stories has really resonated with me. My poor husband has to listen to a lot more Loretta Lynn than he thought he was getting into when he married me.

TM: Are there things that you found in the autobiographies that conveyed something different than, for instance, the recorded albums of these songwriters? Are there any big themes that felt different in those books?

OT: I did not expect Dolly Parton to be the engaging writer that she is. I don’t know why—she is a songwriter. There is a joy and humor in Dolly: My Life and Other Unfinished Business that I wasn’t expecting. There is a love of girliness that I really appreciate. I got to see where that was rooted in her life story.

Part of what was fascinating for me about Dolly Parton’s autobiography, though, was also reading her sister Stella’s autobiography, Tell It Sister, Tell It, and seeing the difference between the two of them. Particularly, the differences in the way that they remember their mother. Every good country singer has a story about their mother and how great their mother was. Stella wrote about the deep depression that their mother lived through, the difficulties of her life, and the difficulties and drudgeries of what it meant to be a country mother. That’s something that didn’t show up either in Dolly Parton’s autobiography or in her music. There seems to be a way that Dolly distances herself even from the memory of that in the autobiography. I found both of those stories really compelling. How do you beautify a story that wasn’t all that beautiful? What does it mean to think, I saw my mother constantly sick from being pregnant, either ill from pregnancy or post-partum depression and unable to get out of bed, and I had to do all of the work?, and to not sentimentalize that in the ways that it gets sentimentalized in some male country artists’ songs?

Loretta Lynn’s autobiographies—there’s Coal Miner’s Daughter and Still Woman Enough—it was fascinating to see her revise her story. To say, There are things that I told in that first story that were incomplete, there are moments where I came off as more the victim than I was, and there are moments where I underplayed the difficulty of my life is remarkable. Also, in the second autobiography, she’s writing because her twins want to know more about their father, who died when they were fairly young. She feels like at this point in her life it’s important not to sugarcoat things, and that she needs to talk about him being an alcoholic and abusive and her not just taking it. It was important to tell a less romantic story than what we saw in the movie Coal Miner’s Daughter or even in some of her songs. I really enjoyed all of those books.

I also should have mentioned earlier that Big Freedia’s autobiography, God Save the Queen Diva!, is one of my favorite books. The story that she tells is about growing up in New Orleans, Hurricane Katrina, and the complexity of gender and sexuality in her relationship to the black church. I love that book and people sometimes laugh at me and think I’m not serious. I’m like, “No, no, no, you have to read it!”

TM: Any last things that we should know about Beyoncé, feminism, femme-nism, or anything else?

OT: I’m really excited to see other women stepping into the space that Beyoncé has opened. Janelle Monae’s Dirty Computer is a different kind of work imagining a world in which black women’s love matters. The work that Janet Mock has done on the television show Pose is great. I really look forward to continuing this conversation about the spaces that are opening and how we’re shaping them and claiming them. Lemonade has a life that’s beyond itself, and it should.

Seeing the Forest for the Trees: ‘The Overstory’ and ‘Eucalyptus’


Step beneath the outermost leaves and the temperature drops, the light dapples, the path narrows, the situation becomes uncertain. There, out of direct sunlight, life rushes out in cacophonies of saturated color. Tree bark and humus curl past the edge of sight in choppy, gray-brown waves. Moon-pale mushrooms jut from fallen trunks like leering, drowsy eyes. Red smears of fox prey, turquoise flashes of diva birds, purpled cursive looping vines. Black mud sucking at boots in tiny pools, surface a-skitter with paratrooper swarms of translucent mosquitos. And everywhere green, green, and still more green. The understory of a forest or the ecosystem of a novel?

Every forest is full of trees, but it is the trees that make the forest. And so it is in Richard Powers’s latest novel, The Overstory. Across 500 pages of lush, sometimes overgrown prose, Powers nurtures a story of enlightened discoveries, social quandaries, and human disappointments set beside the centuries-long perspective of trees. Appropriately, The Overstory is built like an oak, and the book is broken into four sections called “Roots,” “Trunk,” “Crown,” and “Seeds.” The lives of the nine primary characters grow into this organic mold, and the eventual shape of the novel comes to resemble a plant in its maturity.

The “Roots,” comprising the first third of the book, introduce the protagonists. They are given their own chapters, in which we glimpse the budding of their identities and personal mythologies. Each is linked to a species of tree, an archetypal cast for their character. For instance, Nicholas Hoel is born into the annals of a multi-generational Iowa farm family who developed an eccentric relationship to a doomed American chestnut. This root story foreshadows traits of Nicholas as an adult vis-à-vis his family chestnut; he’s distinctly “American” in his individualistic, grandiose, and downtrodden-but-not-down way. “My maple turns red like me,” says another protagonist, Adam Appich, whose discomfort with communication will outlive his youth. Elsewhere, a mulberry tree stains the flagstones of a suburban backyard patio and Douglas fir trees bristle against the prevailing winds—unique morphologies signifying complex personalities. Through these comparative chapters we meet characters diverse and discretely identified, as if in a botanical garden.

But in the next section of the novel, these archetypes and their character cutouts feed into a larger vision. As readers start the “Trunk” section, the journeys of Nicholas, Adam, and all the others coalesce into a single, wild narrative. Action by action and year by year their lives contribute to a grander story—to put to an obvious point on it—like so many rings forming on the trunk of a tree. The plot straightens out, progressing at an impressive trajectory.

Yet even linear stories like this one demand their own questions and reconsiderations. “If he could read, if he could translate …” one character muses while tracing the wood-grain pattern of a prison desk at the beginning of the “Trunk” section:
If he were only a slightly different creature, then he might learn all about how the sun shone and the rain fell and which way the wind blew against this trunk for how hard and long. He might decode the vast projects that the soil organized, the murderous freezes, the suffering and struggle, shortfalls and surpluses, the attacks repelled, the years of luxury, the storms outlived, the sum of all the threats and chances that came from every direction, in every season this tree ever lived.
The pattern on the furniture before him clearly isn’t the only whorling conundrum occupying his thoughts. The incremental buildup of the novel’s tree-ring structure in the middle section defies easy interpretation, at least for the characters living through its accumulation.

In typical form, The Overstory’s plot eventually reaches a crisis. In the “Crown,” the story structure takes a slightly different course than is found in more traditional novels—instead of collapsing, it branches out. After the climax of “Trunk,” the protagonists travel various paths, mostly alone and, differently vulnerable as individuals than as a group, weather their own stormy seasons. In “Seeds,” each character’s actions bear consequential fruit and, at the conclusion of each mortal micro-drama, they sow the seeds of future stories.

Living trees are more than solitary organisms clinging to the dirt; they host fungal complexes in their root balls, beetle families and owl chicks in their odd hollows, and mossy carpets in their canopies. They are entire worlds to other creatures. The Overstory, with its tree-shaped arc, becomes a nurturing, metaphor-rich environment for storytelling. In its contours, individual lives beget remembrances, songs, and whole other people. And they all become a part of the bigger story, a tree of lives.

Nicholas Hoel, you may remember, grows up beneath the shade of an American chestnut. When he inherits a collection of hundreds of photographs of the tree taken by his relatives for almost a century, he sees “generations of grudge, courage, forbearance, and surprise generosity: everything a human being might call the story happens outside his photos’ frame.” What is captured in them over the years is more inscrutable: “Inside the frame, through hundreds of revolving seasons, there is only that solo tree, its fissured bark spiraling upward into early middle age, growing at the speed of wood.”

Every forest is full of trees, but it is the forest that makes the trees. And so it is in an almost-forgotten Australian novel, Eucalyptus by Murray Bail. Published in 1998, Eucalyptus took root in the land Down Under and notched some of the continent’s most prestigious literary awards—including the Miles Franklin Award and the Commonwealth Writers Prize—however, the book garnered little enduring attention elsewhere. Unlike the taxonomical sweep of Powers’s novel, Eucalyptus derives its unforgettable force by studying its sole namesake. By observing and re-observing the ever-changing eucalyptus, Bail writes a lyrical study on the teeming tilth of individual experience.

In Eucalyptus, the hot scrub of inland Australian seems to go on forever, its kerosene-blue sky no consolation for its endlessness. The dead hills of grazing pasture unroll into the distance, measured off by sagging barbed-wire fences. The only features to catch the eye across the parched Aussie backcountry are the sentinel eucalyptus trees, somber and grand in their loneliness. Under the mottled light of these epic trees, a widower named Holland devises an idiosyncratic plan to arrange for his daughter’s marriage. The successful suitor of his beautiful daughter Ellen will be able to identify and name every variety of eucalyptus tree on his property, which number more than five hundred.

Within the morphology of these multifarious trees, Bail finds striking metaphors to flesh out the people, places, and offshoot stories in Eucalyptus. “Each and every eucalypt is interesting for its own reasons,” writes Bail at the novel’s outset. And sure enough, throughout the book, he describes more than a hundred of these alien plants with the luxurious wonder of a poet. The salmon gum is “the color of a nun’s belly,” the hard-twisting gnarl of jarrah has “civil disobedience in its nature,” and the mallees with their spindly indecision, according to one character, “leave me cold” because “they can never make up their minds which direction to take.”

If The Overstory is built like an oak tree, Eucalyptus is more of a brash and bushy thicket. Instead of a narrative structure composed of roots that form a trunk and branch thereafter, each chapter of Eucalyptus takes on the characteristics of different eucalypt subspecies. The name of the chapter tree clues readers into clever developments in the novel’s ecosystem or relates to another complementary story told by a character, of which there are many. Ever seeking fresh vantages from which to tell stories, the book has the crackling energy of recently burned land, where new growth riots in nutritious soil.

In a chapter named for Eucalpytus regnans—the mountain ash, tallest of all eucalypts and a height competitor to giant sequoias and coastal redwoods—readers meet Ellen’s most accomplished and most-likely-to-be-successful suitor through metaphor. Mr. Cave is described by the town’s spinsters as “tall timber—a term used locally … to render male flesh abstract.” This setup introduces us to Mr. Cave’s notable height and at the same time foreshadows a golem-like uncanniness to his limitless knowledge of eucalypts. Mr. Cave is, alternately, “a telegraph pole fashioned from a tree,” which speaks to a utilitarian rigidity derived from his cultivated hobby. Complicating the picture of Mr. Cave, later in the chapter, it’s told that “tall trees breed even taller stories” and further, “the tallest trees have the tiniest seeds.” This includes Eucalyptus regnans, “which shakes the earth when it falls and provides enough timber to build a three-bedroom house” and “grows from a seed scarcely larger than the following full stop.” Not only does the multidimensional thicket of metaphorical play help form a better picture of Mr. Cave; it also alludes to the ominous consequences of his character in Ellen’s story.

We meet Ellen as a young girl and watch her grow up in the middle of nowhere with her father. She is introduced alongside her dad’s obsession with planting trees, and the first specimen in the ground was outside her window: Eucalyptus eximia, or yellow bloodwood. “The specific name is taken from the English adjective eximious, in the sense that the tree in flower is extraordinary,” writes Bail. Diamond in the rough, wheat in the chaff—pick your metaphor—Ellen cuts a beautiful figure in a dusty patch of the outback. Her blond locks and freckled face make her a topic of the town gossips; her beauty even caused a young man to crash his motorcycle after catching a surreptitious glimpse of her nakedness. Ellen’s femininity is a rare and remarkable species in the hot, male climate of the novel.

But Eucalyptus is, at its heartwood, a story that tries to capture the interior life of Ellen while she’s in the throes of such an unusual upbringing and betrothal. For one birthday in late adolescence, Holland gives Ellen a sapling of Eucalyptus maidenii, or maiden’s gum. At the time, it marks not her maiden-like innocence but rather her ironic understanding that she’s matured beyond her father’s comprehension. Later in the novel and in her life, Ellen stumbles across her maiden’s gum again. This time, in the bloom of her teens, she arrives at it after a downpour. Impulsively, she decides to take off her dress to dry it over a branch. She finds her father has pounded a rusted nail into the trunk. “Hanging to dry,” Ellen reflects on this strange symbolic violation, “the dress repeated a collapsed version of herself.” Given her circumstances and the ways older men use these trees, it’s no wonder that she exclaims, “I’m not interested in any of them!”

Despite the dread Mr. Cave inspires with his implacable march through Holland’s forest to Ellen’s marriage bed, the illuminating literary transformation of the trees along the way inscribes natural and transcendent qualities onto the margins of human need, want, ambition, and love. A twisted grove of snarling emotions, as well as tools like metaphor and parody we unpack to understand them, encircle Mr. Cave, Holland, and Ellen. These rootbound characters are rendered complicated, universal, and dreamlike by inhabiting this poetic copse of eucalypts.

But aren’t these botanical comparisons just tasked with the regular work of metaphor, which is always present in creative writing? In a way, of course. But the frequency, specificity, consistency, and overarching chapter structure in both Eucalyptus and The Overstory transcend the typical well-considered similes of other works. These novels become figurative microclimates and by doing so share how characters and stories fit into larger ecosystems of understanding.

“Every country has its own landscape which deposits itself in layers on the consciousness of its citizens,” writes Bail, “thereby cancelling the exclusive claims made by all other national landscapes.” One bonus pleasure of Bail’s wild little novel is how, by exploring fictional personality quirks and eucalypt morphology, he is also able to make broad, convincing characterizations of his homeland. “The eucalypts stand apart, solitary, essentially undemocratic,” he writes at one point, and at another that they are “notorious for giving off an inhospitable, unsympathetic air.” We come to see not only his layered characters, but also the traditions and national traits that would generate such people as Holland, Mr. Cave, and Ellen. It is as if “Advance Australia Fair,” the national anthem Down Under, is being played through a flute made from coarse-grained eucalyptus windthrow.

Through the pages of The Overstory (and this is true of Eucalyptus as well), readers are vined-over with tree metaphors, facts, and anecdotes and, thereby, become just a little greener themselves. It’s a strategy that Powers uses to set us up for the bigger takeaways of the book. “A chorus of living wood sings to the woman,” intones the omniscient narrator in the introductory pages of The Overstory. “If your mind were only a slightly greener thing, we’d drown you in meaning.” It’s nearly the whole tome before Powers explicitly returns to his greening agenda.

“Here’s a little outsider information,” says Dr. Patricia Westerford in a long soliloquy toward the end of The Overstory:
and you can wait for it to be confirmed. A forest knows things. They wire themselves up underground. There are brains down there, ones our own brains aren’t shaped to see. Root plasticity, solving problems and making decisions. Fungal synapses. What else do you want to call it? Link enough trees together, and a forest grows aware.
Having greened a little ourselves, we see how trees can become a little more human through our deeper understanding of them. Though rich in flawed characters, social turmoil, and contestable ideas, The Overstory’s primary mission is to show the majesty, complexity, and vulnerability of the other natural world that greenly sparkles all around us and instill empathy for it. Grafting the two stories—of us and of the trees—wouldn’t be possible, or at least not as effective, without convincing us through figurative language that we are part of the same ecosystem of meanings.

“The artist, yes, humanizes the wonder of nature by doing a faulty version of it,” writes Bail, “and so nature—landscape, the figure—is brought closer to us, putting it faintly within our grasp.”

Is the tree-like structure of The Overstory, with its branching later acts and story-seeding finale, an evolutionary form for future novels? Is the feral underbrush of allusive meaning found in Eucalyptus a messier but more nuanced way to understand people in their fullness? Perhaps it’s better to leave the answers to the biological genius of natural selection. From Bail:
What is frail falls away; stories that take root become like things, misshapen things with an illogical core, which pass through many hands without wearing out or falling to pieces, remaining in essence the same, adjusting here and there at the edges, nothing more, as families or forests reproduce ever-changing appearances of themselves; the geology of fable.
Image: Flickr/Victor Camilo

Mary Shelley and Mourning as an Essential Act of Apocalypse

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Little cloud-white lambs wobble over the leas and paddocks, nibbling clover under a wooly sky. Ladies and lords and mustachioed manservants converse through the halls of castles. The subjects and soldiers in the hay fields out past the battlements are content, and peaceful in their boisterous way. There is a tallow candle in every midnight window, a sachet of herbs for every howling teapot, and a ruddy-cheeked family relaxing around every hearth. Welcome to the outskirts of London at the twilight of the 21st century.

When Mary Shelley imagined the year 2100 in The Last Man, a lesser-known apocalyptic novel from 1826, she didn’t anticipate the rapid pace of technological and social change that would transform the world. Not only would penicillin prove to be a better cure-all than leeches, but mankind would also devise cell phones and cluster bombs, bitcoin and better long distance travel options than leaky sailboats. And so the frilled nobility and feudal economy of near future Great Britain that Shelley portrays seem anachronistic to contemporary readers, but so too should the notion of a drawn-out apocalypse. In The Last Man, the obliterating pandemic takes a dreadful seven years to finish us off.

Can we imagine a slow apocalypse now? Most contemporary depictions of the end of the world in literature and popular culture involve a bang, not a whimper. Think of the luminous comet barreling toward Earth. Think of the radioactive shockwaves of nuclear holocaust rippling around the planet as if across a pond. Think of all the happy Evangelicals slurped out of their pajamas during a rapturous breakfast. Even abstract notions of collapse—say, reaching peak oil or detonating a “population bomb”—portend a quick topple. Our neighborhoods and nations have grown interdependent on complex international networks, and it’s no trouble to imagine everything swiftly tumbling in the direction of rock bottom.

But when the world ends, I want it to take a long, long, achingly long time. Time to feel our collective loss, to grapple with the grief of it, and time enough to call up the best in us.

That’s why I found Shelley’s take on human extinction oddly refreshing. In The Last Man, the plague that throttles us—characterized as an “invincible monster”—exercises a wicked patience in its malice, and by extension we readers are given what feels like a rare opportunity to mourn our genuine achievements as a species before they are snatched away one by one.

Season after season, Shelley’s invincible monster barrels across the globe. It originates in Africa, moves against Asia, and then conquers France and Italy, where the institutions of genteel diplomacy and uplifting commerce start to falter. News becomes scant and gossipy; information unbelievable. Once the disease hops the English Channel, abstractions fall too. While London is racked and ravaged, the government and its practitioners wither. (Somehow the stoic rule of law, for a time, survives the death-spiral of British society.) Out in the idyllic countryside, we watch as wealth and hereditary privilege suffer their own grim fates, as the noble families relinquish their lands to house the poor, transient, and sick.

Lastly, we are given the time and space to mourn the emotions that make us human. After fleeing the English countryside, the weary remnant of humankind seeks the salubrious airs of the Swiss Alps and Mediterranean shores. Along the way we witness, with utmost relief, the final gasp of religious extremism. A chance encounter with a church organ and its only remaining players gives us our last experience of the sublime. Jealousy and exuberance, doubt and heartfelt fondness—one by one they disappear. And the sudden death of our narrator’s two final companions, which follows the extended death scene of his son, grants the space to even mourn the act of mourning itself.

By the book’s final pages, not much of civilization remains to be mourned except for the odd marble ruin erected by the ancients.  “Thus are we left,” says one friend to our narrator,
two melancholy blasted trees, where once a forest waved. We are left to mourn, and pine, and die. Yet even now we have our duties, which we must string ourselves to fulfill: the duty of bestowing pleasure where we can, and by force of love, irradiating with rainbow hues the tempest of grief. Nor will I repine if in this extremity we preserve what we now possess.

Decline’s easy pace in The Last Man, despite being written nearly two centuries prior, prefigures a semi-apocalyptic genre with contemporary salience: climate fiction. These are speculative stories of individuals and communities whose lives are threatened by the effects of global warming and climate change. Many of the novels in this genre end not in the shadow of a killer wave, but in the murk below a rising tide. Alternately, the characters of these stories may toil under a sweltering sun, whispering sand dune, or encroaching glacier.

Drought chokes the plotlines of both Claire Vaye Watkins’s Gold Fame Citrus and Paolo Bacigalupi’s The Water Knife. In both, the American West and Southwest have run dry and the desert heat evaporates what little remains of the human soul. In the novels of Jeff Vander Meer, including Borne and his Southern Reach trilogy, we witness the phantasmagoric reversion of the planet to a natural world unbound from human agency. Lush swarms of monarch butterflies descend upon rural Tennessee in Barbara Kingsolver’s Flight Behavior, portending great, horrible changes in both the near term and far future. In Alexis Wright’s The Swan Book, Australia’s social and political structure is rocked by climate-induced migration. After the mother of all storms, we see the granular erosion of capitalism in Nathaniel Rich’s Odds Against Tomorrow. Classic cli-fi novels include Margaret Atwood’s Oryx & Crake and Ian McEwan’s Solar. This is a small sample of the burgeoning genre.

Like all of the natural “antagonists” in the books above, Shelley’s imagined plague advances with a creeping surefootedness, not unlike the incremental buildup of troubling symptoms within the global climate system. There’s an almost unfathomable (and growing) body of data about climate change and the ways it will disrupt our civilization’s pleasant march toward enlightenment. Meteorologists can point to the residential neighborhoods the future’s floods will swallow, forest ecologists can draw the lines of retreat for harried conifer groves, marine biologists can deluge you with estimates of fishery collapse, and glaciologists would prefer instead to recommend options for inexpensive bourbon, so dire is the condition of our planet’s large ice reserves. By these predictions, we can start to imagine the loss of the places to which we’ve grown most connected.

Coming to terms with those losses will take more than insight or experience. Describing the strange remnant world left at the conclusion of his aforementioned novel Borne, Jeff Vander Meer writes:
There comes a moment when you witness events so epic you don’t know how to place them in the cosmos or in relation to the normal workings of a day. Worse, when these events recur at an even greater magnitude, in a cascade of what you have never seen before and do not know how to classify. Troubling because each time you acclimate, you move on, and if this continues, there is a mundane grandeur to the scale that renders certain events beyond rebuke or judgment, horror or wonder, or even the grasp of history.
If mourning is the process of acclimating to loss, then climate fiction is a new literature of mourning.

Recall Shelley’s exhortation to duty in the face of grief: “bestowing pleasure where we can, and by force of love, irradiating with rainbow hues the tempest of grief.” While “tempest of grief” may be the most apt and chilling phrase for global warming, “force of love” is a good description of the radical political willpower required to counteract our decline. Both emotional states will naturally arise from the loss of those things, places, and people we cherish most. But, Shelley continued: “Nor will I repine if in this extremity we preserve what we now possess.” This is her exhortation to cherish our individual happy memories, our civilization’s grand triumphs, and our species’ fateful legacy. If we do not mourn those things, we cannot move on from our grief.